Cinematography
Setup: one camera position and everything associated with it. While the shot is the basic building block of the film, the setup is the basic component of the film's production.
Shot: one uninterrupted run of the camera. It can be as short or as long as the director wants, but it cannot exceed the length of the film stock in the camera.
Categories:

Camera Angle and Height
Camera Movement
Point of View
Lenses
Composition and Framing
Rules
Types of Shots
Camera Angle and Height
Shooting angle: the level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed. The five basic camera angles are eye level, high angle, low angle, Dutch angle, and aerial view.
5 basic camera angles eye level, low angle, high angle, dutch angle and aerial view
Aerial view: also known as bird's-eye view; an omniscient-point-of-view shot that is taken from an aircraft or extremely high crane and implies the observer's omniscience.
Dutch angle: also known as Dutch tilt or oblique angle; one of the five basic camera angles (the others are eye level, low angle, high angle, and aerial view). In a Dutch-angle shot, the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
Eye level: one of the five basic camera angles (the others are high angle, low angle, Dutch angle, and aerial view). An eye-level shot is made from the observer's eye level and usually implies neutrality with respect to the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed.
High angle: one of the five basic camera angles (the others are eye level, low angle, Dutch angle, and aerial view). A high-angle shot (or downward-angle shot) is made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
Low angle: also known as upward angle; one of the five basic camera angles (the others are eye level, high angle, Dutch angle, and aerial view). A low-angle shot is made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in a position of inferiority.
Camera Movement

Boom up/boom down:
To raise or lower the height of a camera mounted on a boom or pedestal.
Crane shot: movement of a camera mounted on an elevating arm that, in turn, is mounted on a vehicle capable of moving on its own power. A crane may also be mounted on a vehicle that can be pushed along tracks.
Pan shot: the horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod; like the tilt shot, a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
Steadicam: a camera actually worn by the cameraman, so it is not "handheld"; it removes jumpiness, and it is now much used for smooth, fast, and intimate camera movement.
Swish pan: a horizontal camera movement so fast that it blurs the photographic image.
Tilt shot: the vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. Like the pan shot, it is a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
Tracking shot (also known as a dolly shot or trucking shot): A technique in which the camera is mounted on a wheeled platform that is pushed on rails while filming. One may dolly in on a stationary subject for emphasis, or dolly out, or dolly beside a moving subject (an action known as "dollying with").


Point Of View
Omniscient point of view: the most basic and most common point of view. Omniscient means that the camera has complete or unlimited perception of what the cinematographer chooses for it to see and hear; this POV shows what that camera sees, typically from a high angle.
Point of view shot (also known as POV shot or a subjective camera): A short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera). It is usually established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something, and a shot showing the character's reaction (see shot reverse shot). The technique of POV is one of the foundations of film editing. The two fundamental types of cinematic point of view are omniscient and subjective (or restricted), which can be either direct or indirect.
Restricted point of view: also known as subjective point of view.
Single character's point-of-view shot: a shot made with the camera close to the line of sight of a character (or animal or surveillance camera), showing what that person would be seeing of the action; see also omniscient point-of-view shot and group point-of-view shot.
Subjective point of view: also known as restricted point of view. Point of view that shows us a shot or scene as viewed by a character—major, minor, or marginal.
Lenses


Deep-focus cinematography: using the short-focal-length lens, this captures deep-space composition and its illusion of depth.
Deep-space composition: a total visual composition that occupies all three planes of the frame, thus creating an illusion of depth, and usually shot with deep-focus cinematography.
Focal length: the distance from the optical center of a lens to the focal point (the film plane— foreground, middle ground, or background—that the cameraperson wants to keep in focus) when the lens is focused at infinity.
Long-focal-length lens: also known as the telephoto lens, and one of the four major types of lenses (the others are the short-focal-length lens, the middle-focal-length lens, and the zoom lens). It flattens the space and depth of the image and thus distorts perspective relations.
Middle-focal-length lens: or the "normal" lens, and one of the four major types of lenses (the others are the short-focal-length lens, the long-focal-length lens, and the zoom lens). It does not distort perspectival relations.
Short-focal-length lens: also known as the short-focus or wide-angle lens, and one of the four major types of lenses (the others are the middle-focal-length lens, the long-focal-length lens, and the zoom lens). It creates the illusion of depth within the frame, albeit with some distortion at the edges of the frame.
Zoom lens: one of the four major types of lenses (the others are the short-focal-length lens, the middle-focal-length lens, and the long-focal-length lens). It is moved toward and away from the subject being photographed, has a continuously variable focal length, and helps reframe a shot within the take.

Composition & Framing
Double-exposure: a special effect in which one shot is superimposed over another; may be expanded to a multiple-exposure.

Iris: a circular cutout made with a mask that creates a frame within the frame.
Iris-in and iris-out: optical wipe effects in which the wipe line is a circle; named after the iris diaphragm, which controls the amount of light passing through a camera lens. The iris-in begins with a small circle, which expands to a partial or full image; the iris-out is the reverse.
Mask: an opaque sheet of metal, paper, or plastic (with, for example, a circular cutout, known as an iris) that is placed in front of the camera and admits light through that circle to a specific area of the frame—to create a frame within the frame.
Planes: the three theoretical horizontal planes—foreground, middle ground, and background—or areas within the frame; see rule of thirds.
Rule of thirds: a compositional principle that enables filmmakers to maximize the potential of the image, put its elements into balance, and create the illusion of depth. A grid pattern, when superimposed on the image, divides it into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes and vertical thirds that break up those planes into further elements. ???
Scale: the size and placement of a particular object or a part of a scene in relation to the rest, a relationship determined by the type of shot used and the placement of the camera.
Split-screen: a method, which may be created in the camera or during the editing process, of telling two stories at the same time. Unlike parallel editing, however, which cuts back and forth between shots for contrast, the split-screen can tell multiple stories within the same frame.
Storyboard: a scene-by-scene (sometimes a shot-by-shot) breakdown that combines sketches or photographs of how each shot is to look along with written descriptions of the other elements that are to go with each shot, including dialogue, sound, and music.
Two-shot: a shot in which two characters appear; ordinarily a medium shot or medium long shot.
Rules
The 30° rule: A basic guideline that states the camera should move at least 30° between shots of the same subject. This change of perspective makes the shots different enough to avoid a jump cut.
The 180° rule: A basic guideline in film making that states that two characters (or other elements) in the same scene should always have the same left/right relationship to each other. If the camera passes over the imaginary axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line. The new shot, from the opposite side, is known as a reverse angle.
Types of Shots
Establishing shot:
A shot that sets up, or "establishes" the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is generally a long shot or extreme long shot at the beginning of a scene indicating where, and sometimes when, the remainder of the scene takes place.

Extreme close-up: sometimes designated ECU; a very close shot of some detail, such as a person's eye, a ring on a finger, or a watch face.
Extreme long shot: sometimes designated ELS; a shot that places the human figure far away from the camera, thus revealing much of the landscape.
Fast motion: photography that accelerates action by photographing it at a filming rate less than the normal 24 fps, then projecting it at normal speed, so it takes place cinematically at a more rapid rate.
Freeze frame: also known as stop frame and hold frame; a still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing in the laboratory of the same frame so that it can be seen without movement for whatever length of time the filmmaker desires.
Insert: A shot of part of a scene as filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from the master shot. Inserts cover action already covered in the master shot, but emphasize a different aspect of that action due to the different framing. An insert differs from a cutaway as cutaways cover action not covered in the master shot.

Long shot: sometimes designated LS; a shot that shows the full human body, usually filling the frame, and some of its surroundings.
Long take: An uninterrupted shot in a film which lasts much longer than the conventional editing pace either of the film itself or of films in general, usually lasting several minutes. It can be used for dramatic and narrative effect if done properly, and in moving shots is often accomplished through the use of a dolly or Steadicam.
Master shot: A film recording of an entire dramatized scene, from start to finish, from an angle that keeps all the players in view. It is often a long shot and can sometimes perform a double function as an establishing shot. Usually, the master shot is the first shot checked off during the shooting of a scene—it is the foundation of what is called camera coverage, other shots that reveal different aspects of the action, groupings of two or three of the actors at crucial moments, close-ups of individuals, insert shots of various props, and so on.
Medium long shot: sometimes designated MLS; also known as the American shot and the plan américain; a shot that is taken from the knees up and includes most of a person's body.
Medium shot: often designated MS; a shot showing the human body, usually from the waist up.
Persistence of vision: the process by which the human brain retains an image for a fraction of a second longer than the eye records it.
Process shot: live shooting against a background that is front- or rear-projected on a translucent screen.
Series photography: the use of a series of still photographs to record the phases of an action, though the actions within the images do not move.
Slow motion: photography that decelerates action by photographing it at a rate greater than the normal 24 fps, so that it takes place in cinematic time at a rate less rapid than the rate of real action that took place before the camera.












LESSON IV: Seeing the Light: The Arts of Cinematography & Film Editing

Monday, Nov. 14 (Two or more classes)


Purpose: Introduce students to the art of cinematography and associated terms and concepts to aid them in film analysis and criticism.

Outcomes:
Students will be expected to: (4) select, read, and view with understanding a range of literature, information, media, and visual texts; (7) respond critically to a range of texts, applying their understanding of language, form, and genre.

Objectives:
Show evidence of comprehension of new terms and concepts by contributing to a list of key terms and definitions.

Texts/Materials: Visions of Light (film documentary) Trailer on wiki here:
http://mrboydselaclass.wikispaces.com/Cinematography

Procedure:
-Introduce cinematography:
-“In week one, we looked very closely at one of the two basic components of film: sound. This week, we will look at the other one: light.”
-“Of what is this visual component of film composed? Bits of film (or code in digital media) cut, or edited, together.”
-“So there are (at least) two major components of the visual component of film: what the camera records, and how this recorded information is put together sequentially to tell the story.”
-“Today we will look at the recording, or filming, component. This is called cinematography.”
-“Cinematography, can be broken down into components: the angle of the camera, the movement of the camera (if any) during a shot, the type of lens used on the camera for a given shot, and the lighting. By the end of this week, you will be able to talk about these elements of cinematography with more sophistication and knowledge than the authors of most film reviews you read.”
-Screen “Visions of Light”, an excellent documentary on the art of cinematography, instructing them to write down any new terms or insights as they watch, so that these can be posted on the wiki (see possible resultant contributions to the wiki here:
http://mrboydselaclass.wikispaces.com/Technical+Terms
-Discuss film editing. Points:
-Film editing is the only art that originated with film making. All of the other components (acting, photography, music, sound effects, lighting, writing, set design, etc.) predate the art of film.
-Through reading the screenplay to Frankenstein and viewing “Visions of Light,” they have already some awareness of editing and some technical vocabulary. Provide a list of whatever essential terms they have not yet encountered, and explain them, describing, or screening, examples of each.
-This knowledge will be reinforced and internalized through the “Call the Shots” activity to be done in class together (directly below).
-This activity should prepare them for the “Prepare a Shooting Script (Ex Post Facto)” assignment (below the “Call the Shots” activity), that will be explained and assigned to them at the end of class.


Assessment: By posting on the wiki, students will demonstrate how closely they have attended to the new information.


Homework: Post new unfamiliar technical terms (with or without definitions) from Visions of Light on the wiki page dedicated for this purpose (or provide definitions for those entries with the term but no definition). Begin second half of novel.


LESSON : The Art of Cinematography & Film Editing

Alyssa Rock


Purpose
: Introduce students to the art of cinematography and associated terms and concepts to aid them in film analysis and criticism.

Outcomes: Students will be expected to: (4) select, read, and view with understanding a range of literature, information, media, and visual texts; (7) respond critically to a range of texts, applying their understanding of language, form, and genre.

Objectives
: Students will be able to define the basic visual vocabulary of film and apply these vocabulary terms to the films they see of new terms and concepts by contributing to a list of key terms and definitions.

Texts/Materials
: Film Terms packet, a video camera hooked into the TV or projector (if possible), Istvan Banyai’s Zoom and Re-Zoom (if possible) Films: Double Indemnity (Billy Wilder), The Graduate (Mike Nichols), Touch of Evil (Orson Welles)

Procedure
:
Hand out the Film Terms vocabulary packet to all the students. Tell students that it is their responsibility to fill out the graphic organizers during the lecture today. Throughout the lecture, there will be film clips to demonstrate the concepts discussed.

Section One: The Principle Parts of Film
Frame: 1) the rectangle itself in which the film appears, 2) each still photograph in the series, that makes up a strip of film.
Shot: what is recorded by a single operation of the camera from the time the director gives the command “action!” to the time the director says “cut.”
Scene: a group of shots that are coherently related to each other, with continuous action usually in a single location, but not always.
Sequence: a group of scenes forming a self-contained unit.

Show a favorite film clip. For example, I like to show the final scene from The Graduate just because it’s so famous and gets replicated all the time. Have the students clap at the end of every shot. You might also want to pause the clip during various sections to point out what the frame is, mention how this is a scene, etc.

Section Two: Camera Angles
High angle: a shot taken from above the subject/action.

What is the effect? The effect is that it makes the character seem small and vulnerable.

Low angle: a shot taken from below the subject/action.

What is the effect? The effect is that it makes the character seem dominating or frightening, larger-than-life.

Bird’s eye: a shot taken directly above the action.

What is the effect? The effect is that is makes the viewer feel disoriented or God-like.

Eye-level: a shot from the eye-level of the subject.

What is the effect? The effect is that it is straight-forward, doesn’t draw attention to itself, it feels balanced, calm, ordered.

If you have a video camera hooked up to your class TV or projector, you could model these angles as you discuss them.

Film clip example: The opening scene in Double Indemnity in which the female is shot from a low angle and the male is shot from a high angle. After it is over, I ask the students: according to the camera angles, who has the visual power in this scene?

Section Three: Camera Distance
Note: the abbreviations listed on the handout (CU, MS, etc.) just refer to the way these types of shots are abbreviated in film screenplays. They’re just used as shorthand.
Close-up: a shot filmed up close to the subject, concentrates on a relatively small object (e.g.the human face). The use of a close-up elevates the importance of the subject, creates intimacy (helps us to identify with the character), or it can create a sense of menace and intrusion.
Medium Shot: the figure is seen from the knees or waist up, good for shots with two or three people. These shots are fairly straight-forward and don’t draw attention to themselves. They’re almost casual.
Long Shot: corresponds to the approximate distance between the audience and the stage, takes in a great deal of landscape. A long shot objectifies the action, encourages a sense of detachment from the action.
Full Shot: shows the human body in full.
Establishing Shot: usually exterior, it’s a long shot that shows the audience the location of the action before moving on to the actual action.

If you have a video camera hooked up to your class TV or projector, you could model these camera distances as you discuss them.

Section Four: Camera Movement
Pan: the movement of the camera (on the tripod) from left to right, vice versa.
Tilt: the movement of the camera from top to bottom, vice versa.
Dolly: any shot where the entire camera moves from one actual point to another.
Zoom: a shot using a lens whose focal length is adjusted during the shot (a little like the dolly shot—only the camera doesn’t actually move). This shot is used sparingly except in campy kung fu movies.
Rack (Roll) Focus: to shift the focus from close to distant (or vice versa) during a shot, used to direct the viewer’s attention from one subject to another. In other words, it’s when something in the foreground is focused on and then the focus switches to the focus to whatever is in the background (or vice versa).

If you have a video camera hooked up to your class TV or projector, you could model these camera movements as you discuss them. I sometimes like to show the picture books Zoom and Re-zoom by Istvan Banyai when I talk about dollies and zooms since they illustrate the concepts nicely.

Show the students the opening scene of Touch of Evil. As students watch this, I will usually discuss the camera movements out loud with them, pointing them out as it goes along. (You’ll notice that the opening scene is all one shot—the duration of time from when the bomb is set and the bomb goes off.)

The remaining page in the packet, Transitions (Editing), I save for discussion at a later time. You can collect the packets today or tell the students to save them for next time.


Assessment
: By posting on the wiki, students will demonstrate how closely they have attended to the new information.

Homework
: Post new unfamiliar technical terms (with or without definitions) from Visions of Light on the wiki page dedicated for this purpose (or provide definitions for those entries with the term but no definition). Begin second half of novel.

Assessment
: The thorough analysis of the six scenes.